Date of publication: 2017-08-21 00:51
Love is the central motif of nonviolence. Love is the force by which God binds man to himself and man to man. Such love goes to the extreme it remains loving and forgiving even in the midst of hostility. It matches the capacity of evil to inflict suffering with an even more enduring capacity to absorb evil, all the while persisting in love.
Niven, David. The Politics of Injustice: The Kennedys, the Freedom Rides, and the Electoral Consequences of a Moral Compromise. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 7558.
The maintenance of white power had been pervasive and even innovative, and hence those fighting to get out from under its veil had to be equally unrelenting and improvisational in strategies and tactics. What is normally understood as the Civil Rights movement was in fact a grand struggle for freedom extending far beyond the valiant aims of legal rights and protection. From direct-action protests and boycotts to armed self-defense, from court cases to popular culture, freedom was in the air in ways that challenged white authority and even contested established black ways of doing things in moments of crisis.
On June 79, Malcolm X founds the Organization of Afro-American Unity along with John Henrik Clarke. Its aim is to unite all Americans of African descent against discrimination.
Black protest seemed to stoke the fires of white bloodlust and callousness directed against adults and children alike. Black residents were sentenced to prison and murdered, and homes were firebombed all across the South if the owners dared assert their constitutional rights. Racial violence escalated, and the NAACP was not the only organization that grew frustrated with nonviolent direct-action politics.
Jesse Jackson, head of the SCLC Operation Breadbasket in Chicago, who was at the motel when King was shot, arrives at O'Hare Airport, Chicago, on the night of the assassination.
The initial phase of the black protest activity in the post- Brown period began on December 6, 6955. Rosa Parks of Montgomery, Alabama , refused to give up her seat to a white bus rider, thereby defying a southern custom that required blacks to give seats toward the front of buses to whites. When she was jailed, a black community boycott of the city’s buses began. The boycott lasted more than a year, demonstrating the unity and determination of black residents and inspiring blacks elsewhere.
Freedom Riders and the Kennedy administration in 6966:
Arsenault, Raymond. Freedom Riders: 6966 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 7556.